Affect-based and Attribute-based Evaluations

Affect-based evaluations are made by the consumer evoked by an alternative, that are based on the overall feeling. Emotion and mood influence affect-based evaluations when given limited information on the alternative.

Attribute-based evaluations are made considering a purchase situation, where evaluations are based on a set of relevant attributes. For example, product features are considered when comparing products.

Affect-based Evaluations

Mood-ivated to get those shorts
My example is a personal example of an Affect Based Evaluation from when I was shopping at the mall a couple of years ago (yeah, I still remember this moment). I was walking around one of my favorite shops, and a pair of shorts caught my attention. Sounds silly, but I honestly felt a strong feeling of REALLY wanting these shorts. I had a ton of shorts back at home, and I definitely didn’t need any new ones. Normally, I don’t buy things unless I really need them. Also, I never tend to buy things at their full price. These particular shorts were not on sale, but still, I just had to have them. I don’t know exactly why, I just know I really liked them. I ended up buying them, and still love those shorts to this day.

Branding > Attribute

When healthy food market to the customers, marketers usually make people to consider the benefits and the nutrition over taste (experiencing attribute based evaluations). On the other hand, snacks and desserts, because of their lack in nutrition , usually adapted emotional appeal in marketing. From Coca Cola’s “open happiness” (now “Taste the feeling”) to Kit Kat’s “Have a break”, companies try to associate happiness and enjoyment with the product.



(via Campaign brief)

Brand and values also participate heavily in affect based evaluations. It is because emotions are subjective, therefore a positive brand image can be crucial in affecting customer interpretation of its products. Even many people does realize Starbucks beverages are not outstanding in quality and overprice, but because of their public image and relationship with the customers, it manages to be the most successful company in the field of coffee.

Colors and Content Can Make a Difference

I am opting to attend an air show sometime in the future. The first thing can comes in mind is what to wear to the air show. As there are many teams performing, the more vivid their representation gets. In other words, I would get a shirt that has colors aligning with my favorite team and the content (e.g.) that has very strong affiliation with said team. This in turn brings about satisfaction as I get my attire.

Attribute-based Evaluations

Prominence in Marketing Ads

There has always been a number of commercials that based their message on comparing their own product brand against other similar product brands. The comparisons most companies choose to showcase are on features, benefits, price, and more. One commercial recently came out comparing their product with another prominent product in the market. Lysol Wipes created a commercial based in a school where germs live and prosper, and compared their product to Clorox’s similar product, Clorox wipes.

See the Lysol Wipes Commercial

Lysol pitted the two products against one another to see which killed the most commonly found germs out there. In their comparison, Lysol Wipes wins overall, in killing more germs. The marketing ad  is based on showcasing their product in the same way we evaluate those in the market, based on their attributes, if not by how we feel. In terms of cleaning products, consumers search for those that clean the best, and the most, in a reasonable time. When consumers view the products attributes, the decision becomes clear as the product is researched and looked at. Lysol Wipes takes care of the research and comparison often done before purchasing a product, by placing the benefits in the commercial to attract more customers.

T-Mobile #BallbusterChallenge


If you’ve turned on a TV, radio or seen pretty much any advertising in the universe in the last couple weeks, you can’t have missed Verizon’s “balls” ad in which Big Red tries to explains its network using an outdated test it which finds Verizon’s network to be the only one worth considering. The ad is missing details and facts, including the “fine print” that the Verizon test is up to 12 months old and completely ignores that T-Mobile’s LTE network have literally more than DOUBLED in the last year. It also calls out that the independent tests, which turns out to be partially paid by Verizon excluded Voice over LTE technology that handles 40% of T-Mobile’s calls and even ignored T-Mobile’s Extended Range LTE, the Un-carrier’s newest coverage, which goes 2x farther from towers and works 4x better in buildings—among other things. In addition, the Un-carrier is inviting consumers and media to give T-Mobile’s full network a try … because T-Mobile’s LTE network is not just the nation’s fastest, it’s also the nation’s fastest growing. I think this advertising failure has helped the attribute-based evaluations consumers make when choosing cellphone companies.




Types of Shopping Activities

Acquisitional shopping– Activities oriented toward a specific, intended purchase or purchases.
Epistemic shopping– Activities oriented toward acquiring knowledge about products.
Experiential shopping– Recreational oriented activities designed to provide interest, excitement, relaxation, fun, social interaction, or some other desired feeling.
Impulsive shopping– Spontaneous activities characterized by a diminished regard for consequences, heightened emotional involvement, and a desire for immediate self-fulfillment.

There are four different types of shopping. Different people view shopping in different ways. It could be due to their personality, and what type of shopping they are doing. People can shop for actual items, for experiences, for themselves, for others, etc. There are many different ways to go about shopping. Some experiences for some people can result in a fun, leisurely activity. On the other hand, it may be more of a chore/task for some, and it may actually be more stressful. In this blog, the different types of shopping will be defined in detail, and with that you can probably determine which of the four types of shopping you may be taking part of in a given moment. These types of shopping can influence a shopper’s decision making and value.

Acquisitional Shopping

When a consumer base their buying activities on a specific intention or purpose, he or she is experiencing Acquisitonal shopping. Purchase in this type of shopping activity mainly emphasize utilitarian value of the product. Sometimes this kind of shopping can be not very enjoyable because the consumer may think it is more as a task, e.g. buying printer ink, filling up the gas.

Holiday Shopping

Most people participate in Acquisitional Shopping during the holidays. It is because many people have to buy presents for their families / loved ones. Gifts are selected specifically for a person , and also for a specific occasion (for example: Christmas / Valentine’s Day). And it can be a trouble to many people trying to look for the perfect gift, and to get through the intense shopping crowd during the holiday season. Therefore, there are website such as (and also numbers of different shopping guides on the media) to help customers save time and effort.

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Epistemic Shopping

The purpose of epistemic shopping is for the buyer to incorporate new knowledge about a shop and its products. Upon purchase, the consumer stops the process of acquiring knowledge about a store or product simply because something within that place has already been acquired. This type can bring about either utilitarian or hedonic value

Online Reconnaissance

Online shopping has made it easy for everyone to find out about certain products and places. From Amazon to Yelp, websites with testimonials, detailed or short, can be viewed as to whether a product or service can potentially entice a consumer. Before buying a movie or going to a restaurant in a different city, one can look up the ratings of the many products online. Typically, these ratings are scaled 1 to 5 (as in the case of the aforementioned websites).  Upon purchase of a good or service, it is time to kick back and enjoy the view or taste.

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Experiential Shopping

Buying The Experience 

Consumers often have to buy something in order to participate in a certain activity. The idea of is the experience worth the price is often debated, once an activity is desired and pursued. However, the question truly is, “Is it worth it?” and to most it is. Theme parks, cruises, and spas sell the experience one would receive if you purchase and chose to go there. One example of this is found in marketing ads and videos geared to hotels and resorts, Disney Aulani.

Disney Aulani commercial

Disney Aulani mainly markets to family, and focuses on bringing families together. In this case, consumers are outshopping. The must buy the travel to Hawaii, to partake in the activities that can be included. They are able to explore beaches and waterfalls, enjoy spas and museums, and understand and experience the Hawaiian culture. By providing activities for their target market of families, Disney Aulani becomes the ultimate destination for family travel vacations.

(source: Disney)


Impulsive Shopping


Urgency as a purchase motivator

One way a consumer conducts an impulse purchase is through seeing a brand new item for the first time. They haven’t seen or heard of the product before, which means they don’t have any prior knowledge about it. When there’s urgency added to the offer, a sale is more likely to happen on a new item than without. This is generally how QVC and other home shopping networks work. They tell you they have “just 1000 left” while they’re telling you about the product. You either listen and purchase when QVC has said exactly what you want to hear (lose weight, look younger, etc.), or you lose out. There’s usually just a few minutes to make a decision, so there’s little time to spend researching and looking up reviews.

The same goes for buying a house. You see a house you love, and suddenly your real estate agent says another buyer popped up to sweep it out from under you. At the last minute, you’ve decided where you’ll live for the next ten to fifty years of your life and are getting pre-approved at 10pm by a mortgage broker, just so you can put in an offer before the other guy. Without urgency, a shopper will have a strong, fleeting desire to make a purchase, but could close the deal later.

Social Media and Consumer Behavior

Social Media is defined as web based media through which communication occurs.

Social networks are consumers connecting with one another based on common interests, associations, or goals.

Social networking websites are websites that facilitates online social networking.

Mobile applications(most commonly known a Apps) refers to specific types of software that run on various devices like smartphones, tablets, and other computer-based tools.

socialmedia[Image source:The Odyssey Online]

In today’s world, social media has given plenty of opportunities to consumers in adapting different aspects in life. Facebook, Twitter and Instagram have played significant roles in expanding consumers’ online purchases. This blog aims to understand which consumers are mostly influenced by online purchasing, reasons that tempt consumer to purchase online, types of products that are mostly purchased using Social Media and types of Social Media that are mostly used by consumers. Consumers today are progressively utilizing technology and particularly Social Media as an effective tool in their online shopping process. This process can be defined as an electronic process that allows consumers to deal with business people and meet their purchases’ needs. Social Media have played important role in spreading this phenomenon faster. Interacting with consumers on Social Media may result in increasing potential consumers and the probability of turning potential consumers into loyal consumers.

Social Media

Social Media plays a huge factor in consumer behavior. It influences viewers on how to behave and what to buy. They give opinions, reviews, and shapes the consumers view and behavior in a certain way. Those who use social media develop a form of social power over others, which differs based on who you look to and listen. For example, on YouTube, some popular YouTube stars post videos that are solely based on reviewing products they have tried, and give their honest opinion, where some are  professionals in the industry the comment on.

YouTube Made Me Do It/Buy It

A couple years ago, a craze around  a tag went through YouTube called “YouTube Made Me Do It/Buy It,.” Particularly, a majority of YouTube makeup artists were asked by their viewers to do the tag, and compile all the products that other YouTube artists, or the viewers, themselves, have suggested for them to buy. In the video, they would talk about who influenced them, and why they felt the urge to buy a certain product. Each of the videos would showcase their influences and the power social media has over their buyer behavior. YouTube has become a common place of receiving input on trends and deals. It plays a huge factor to the consumers’ susceptibility to interpersonal influence.

Social Networks(Ads in Facebook)

Advertising on Facebook has revolutionized the way buyers purchase what they want, need, and can. In order for this to happen, the process has to start somewhere. Advertisers have the option to modify their preferences through an option box. They can select the many different places in which they want to advertise, basic demographic information (e.g. gender, age, etc.), and advanced information (e.g. workplace, education). Preferences have direct relationship with prospective target population: the less the preferences, the bigger the population, and vice versa for these two factors.

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A decade has passed since the idea of advertising on Facebook was brought to life. Throughout this phase of evolution, users have started to drift away from beholding advertisements in their home computers and towards mobile advertising. But, this is not to say that desktop advertising has lost its touch. In fact, home computer advertising is still essential for some elements, namely news feeds, which are dominant on desktop despite the addition of user preferences.


Social Networking websites (LinkedIn & DeviantArt)

Comparing to social media, social networks is a more two-way communication based service. It requires engagement from both sides of the sharer and the viewer. Social Networking does not only impacted the way we communicate in friends making and relationships, it also helps in job-seeking and career networking. LinkedIn is one of the most popular business-orientated social networking service web. It has more than 400 million acquired users in more than 200 countries.

Even though LinkedIn may not be the most common way in hiring, it builds a platform between employers and employees accessible to each other. It is also a very good start to build your online resume and portfolio. On the other side, one can also get know about their potential employees/ employers a little better.

DeviantArt is another example of a social community site with a shared interest. It is a social networking website for artists and illustrators to share their work and connect with each others. With the rising of other website like Facebook, the sites is less influential now as the users may share their work on their personal site. But the site still have a large number of active users and they sometimes manage to hold events like art shows and portfolio tours.

Mobile Applications

Out of personal experience, I’ve come to realize that my overall favorite mobile application is a banking app. I bank with Union Bank, so I have their application. These applications make things much more easy and accessible. I love being able to view my accounts easily through the app, and also being able to transfer money from one account to the other without actually having to make a visit to the bank. They even have this weird thing now where you can take a picture of your check through the app, and it will process through your money into your account that way. To me, that’s super weird, yet super convenient. Now the only thing I really have to go to the bank for is to deposit or withdraw actual cash. In a way maybe this app can make people more lazy lol..but really, when used the right way they are helpful. People who like to manage their money have an easy way to access their accounts and make sure they aren’t over spending. Also, the easier access promotes in more safety. You can view your accounts whenever to make sure you’re not a victim of fraud.



Self-Concept and Body Presentation

Self-concept definition: an idea of the self constructed from the beliefs one holds about oneself and the responses of others.

This are few points from the book:

Self-esteem – positivity of the self-concept that one holds 

Body-esteem – positivity with which people hold their body image 

Cosmetic Surgery and body modification

Body piercing and tattoos


Breaking Through Labels and Limitations

The idea of self concept and body presentation is essentially how one sees and view themselves, and how they portray this image to those around them. More and more marketing advertisements are focusing on the how and what they find. One company that does this, is Gillette Venus and their campaign of “And,” through #useyourand. In the more recent commercial ad, the title says it all, “Empower Yourself and Use Your And.” In the video, women are asked the question, “Who are you?” being asked to only use one word to describe yourself. However, one cannot just use one word to describe everything, it only limits and forces one to label them-self.

What the women give as an answer, is their reaction to the option to give only ONE word as a description for oneself. The idea of reducing a whole person to only one word; one vague word, one useless word is alarming as well as disheartening. Instead, they answer utilizing the word “and” in stating who they are. They are “doers and thinkers,” “a believer and a teacher,” “a poet and a boxer.” The word “and” can help one characterize them-self, without leaving anything out or behind. With the ability to use the word “and,” one can answer the question “Who are you?” The video challenges people to expand and think more when describing them-self. To change their definition of self concept, to a more positive outlook that not only looks to a small part of who you are, but of who you are as a whole. The video ad focus on our internal look of ourselves, while the product itself is an extension of this view externally, through to how we present ourselves.

To see the video ad: Empower Yourself and Use Your And | Gillette Venus #useyourand

Dove’s Real Beauty


(Source: Dove)

Advertising and media images play an important role in everyday life, and sometimes the messages being relayed to young women about beauty are harmful and skewed. Young women are exposed to these potentially harmful messages at a young age, and are, therefore, continuously present in their lives. In reality, no one actually knows what true beauty really is, so advertisers have created an unrealistic depiction of a truly beautiful woman over the years. There are different opinions about what real beauty is, including a concept of the “thin ideal” being portrayed in some advertisements that are always visible to people and can have detrimental effects on those observing the images. The media is a very influential part of peoples’ lives, and even if we don’t remember all of them. We are exposed to as many as 5,000 ads a day, which seems like an astronomical number, but it is realistic with the type of consumer economy we have today. Many of those ads that focus on women could be portraying messages regarding health, beauty, exercise, and these messages would normally be beneficial to women in terms of proper methodologies to care for oneself. However, some of these messages could also relay a detrimental message to women that they should look a certain way, similar to the “thin ideal “woman, a woman that does not represent the average body type of an American woman.

Feeling beautiful in a world with supermodels and gorgeous actresses dominating every magazine cover, billboard, and TV show can be tough—really tough, some days. But thankfully, some companies are giving us the ammunition to fight back against negative messages—both from the world and from ourselves—with new campaigns intended to inspire all of us to feel stunning, inside and out. In the early 2000s, Dove took this idea and began looking for a way to revive a brand that was being overshadowed by other companies. The company conducted a study of more than 3,000 women in 10 countries in order to learn about women’s priorities and interests. When it reported that only 2 percent of the women interviewed considered themselves beautiful, the executives at Dove saw an opportunity. They moved beyond the bar of soap and introduced other products such as shampoo and body wash, in hope to start a conversation about beauty.


Body Shaming Men Is Not Okay


(image source:

For years, we have fought over the advertising industry for objectifying women and promoting wrong concept of beauty. We can say things have got better with the rising awareness of healthy living and equality. For instance, France has recently announced a law against the use of underweight models and requiring photoshopped images to be labeled.

However, the whole industry in general is still glorifying certain kind of beauty; and it is not only affecting the ladies. As we seeing the emerge of plus-size models and fashion lines for female within the past few years, we did not witness any of those progress happened on the men’s side. We see more and more naked men in entertainment and advertising, with a perfect muscular body. If we think it is cruel for the world making our girls to think they have to be like barbie, just remember it would not do any less harm to do the same on the boys.


(image source: Girltalkhq)

By today’s media standard, I will not be anywhere close to a fit body. And I do feel self-conscious and insecure about it, I went to the gym and feel less like a man standing next to those big guys. The worst part is men are taught to not express our feelings because being emotional is simply not for men.

We nowadays seek for more diversity in beauty, telling people that they can be beautiful no matter their ethnicity or sizes; but at the same time we set up this body standard for guys. If body-shaming to women is incorrect, why would the society thinks that somehow it is more acceptable to to do it to men?  It is okay to have preference for a body type, but it is not okay to feel bad for not having it.

Female Body and Sushi Presentation

As a Japanese art form, women are used for their naked bodies to help serve sushi at social events. By “help serve” I mean by just laying there on a table. The sushi is laid upon the body in the form of “art” to display as though the woman is the platter. The woman is trained to lay for hours on end as the platter for people to choose their sushi off of. Now then, these women are mostly hired for events such as bachelor parties, extravagant birthday parties, and other events like that. They pretty much look like this:

The bodies of these women are expected to look a certain way, of course. Usually lean, and curves in the “right” places as some may say. Women who go for jobs like these more than likely are confident in their body presentation. You can bet that someone who is very insecure with how their body looks will never put themselves on display like in the picture I placed above. Not only women (but mostly, let’s be honest) are wanted for this job; men are sometimes also wanted to be a good-lookin’ sushi platter. But of course, they usually are expected to be fit, and probably have some muscles, or something of the sort. Regardless of the gender though, one will usually have a strong self-concept in order to do a job like this.


Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence is the ability to identify and recognize your own emotions as well as others. Emotional intelligence consists of the ability to recognize, control, and understand the emotions themselves.

Growing Trend in Marketing

Emotional Intelligence has been a social growing trend in advertising. One example of this can be seen and felt in the 2015 Extra Gum Commercial of “The Story of Sarah and Juan.” The commercial ad, in which was initially released three months ago in October, pulls on the viewers heartstrings by showing the love story of Sarah and Juan. Throughout the video, the company’s vision is further instilled of ‘Creating simple pleasures to brighten everyone’s day.’ (Wrigley’s Vision)

Extra Gum: The Story of Sarah & Juan

As seen in the video, the product held an important role in the major events  in their story. As they met, and grew, they developed a connection with the product. At the end of the video is where they finally showcase the product as itself, with all that is left to say is there recent slogan of “#give Extra get Extra.” By utilizing the majority of consumers’ attraction to love stories and romance, Extra showcases the product and their role in everyday lives and the possibilities of what can happen by associating them with special events.


(Photo courtesy of Ucreative)

Using “EQ” in the Work Force

Emotional intelligence, or commonly referred as “EQ,” has become a particularly important topic in marketing and advertising. In the field of advertising, it has been discovered that our emotional capabilities are just as valuable, if not more so, as our intellectual capabilities. This new idea to use emotion has gone mainstream, and companies are focusing their attention on training their employees on how to increase their emotional intelligence as well as making their hiring decisions based on those who are high in emotional intelligence.

Emotional intelligence has become highly relevant for those of us who are working in marketing. In our jobs, we are constantly working with others and engaging our emotions. Whether it is working alongside a large group of co-workers to develop a creative campaign or presenting ideas to stakeholders, our emotions play a huge role in how we interact with one another. Knowing how to manage our emotions and behaviors appropriately will help us foster stronger relationships and become more successful.Understanding what provokes a desired emotional response in people, and how it affects their behavior, is key to creating advertising and marketing that engages our target audience of potential customers . It should be worked into every strategy we write and piece of content we create.

Emotion is stronger than knowing

With the decreasing efficiency in traditional advertising (especially TV ad), branding takes a bigger part in the marketing plan right now. Thus, advertising also switched its direction towards a more emotional appeals than directly promoting the products. Values and brand image becomes more important in the ads. Companies are trying to build relationship with customers by using emotional approach. It does not only helps audience to feel connected with the brand; but also makes it looking less ad-like, which increases customers’ acceptance of the ad and the messages.

Dove’s “Real Beauty Sketches” commercial is a very successful example. It has more than 60 millions views  on Youtube. One of the reasons for its success is that the commercial was able to trigger audience’s emotion reaction. A huge amount of audience were inspired by the positive message and share the ad with others.  The commercial did not even have a Dove product in it, but as the ad went viral and became crazily popular, everyone noticed it is Dove’s ad. The effect of the emotional intelligence  is way larger than a informative, or simply funny ad can do.

Watch Dove’s “Real Beauty Sketches” commercial on Youtube


(Photo courtesy of Mashable)

Toastmasters International

Toastmasters International is a public speech and leadership development club. It has thousands of branches worldwide and is known to shape members for the better when it comes to management and leadership. Each member selects a club branch within a district and attends meetings there at his or her convenience. The meetings would consist of one-hour sessions with four phases: Introduction (Pledge of Allegiance, Sergeant-at-Arms’ welcome, Club President’s introductory speech), Main Speeches (one or two depending on the preparedness of the speaker/s), Table Topics (one to two-minute speeches relating to random topics with five to eight participants), and Closing Statements (closeout followed by adjourning the meeting by the Club President).

Participants are selected by a proctor (General Evaluator and/or Table Topics Master) to get to the front of the group and present their speeches (prepared or, sometimes, adlibbed). It is only natural to feel a mixture of emotions (e.g. excitement, fear, apprehension, nervousness, etc.) before one goes up to speak. The key to success in delivering a moving speech is for one to think about doing his or her best and display slight aggression in order to persuade the audience and appeal to their emotions the best, most positive way as possible. When all is said and done, it is time to “exit, stage left.”

Using Emotional Intelligence to Read Body Language

According to the book Emotional Intelligence for Dummies, you can use your emotional intelligence to understand a person’s body language in order to understand how they’re feeling. This will help you come up with the best way you can respond to them. Apparently, body language gives up to 50% of what a person is feeling, or even what you want to say. As an example: you can tell that someone is interested in something someone is saying or doing if they are leaning in.

As a personal experience, I’ve used my emotional intelligence to understand body language as well. I do a lot of waiting to see how a person’s body is reacting to see how I feel about how I want to react back. For instance, there have been times at my workplace where I will be trying to inform a customer about a certain product, and they react in one of two ways. Either they lean into me and/or the product and seem really interested in learning more OR they start looking elsewhere and definitely aren’t leaned in. This lets me know how interested the customer is in what I have to say. If they lean in and look like they are listening, I usually keep going. Otherwise, I’ll pull my informing to a halt because obviously I was able to sense by their body language (and not to mention sometimes their words) that they are not interested.

If you still feel a bit confused about Emotional Intelligence, here’s the book:
[For Dummies]