Affect-based and Attribute-based Evaluations

Affect-based evaluations are made by the consumer evoked by an alternative, that are based on the overall feeling. Emotion and mood influence affect-based evaluations when given limited information on the alternative.

Attribute-based evaluations are made considering a purchase situation, where evaluations are based on a set of relevant attributes. For example, product features are considered when comparing products.

Affect-based Evaluations

Mood-ivated to get those shorts
My example is a personal example of an Affect Based Evaluation from when I was shopping at the mall a couple of years ago (yeah, I still remember this moment). I was walking around one of my favorite shops, and a pair of shorts caught my attention. Sounds silly, but I honestly felt a strong feeling of REALLY wanting these shorts. I had a ton of shorts back at home, and I definitely didn’t need any new ones. Normally, I don’t buy things unless I really need them. Also, I never tend to buy things at their full price. These particular shorts were not on sale, but still, I just had to have them. I don’t know exactly why, I just know I really liked them. I ended up buying them, and still love those shorts to this day.

Branding > Attribute

When healthy food market to the customers, marketers usually make people to consider the benefits and the nutrition over taste (experiencing attribute based evaluations). On the other hand, snacks and desserts, because of their lack in nutrition , usually adapted emotional appeal in marketing. From Coca Cola’s “open happiness” (now “Taste the feeling”) to Kit Kat’s “Have a break”, companies try to associate happiness and enjoyment with the product.



(via Campaign brief)

Brand and values also participate heavily in affect based evaluations. It is because emotions are subjective, therefore a positive brand image can be crucial in affecting customer interpretation of its products. Even many people does realize Starbucks beverages are not outstanding in quality and overprice, but because of their public image and relationship with the customers, it manages to be the most successful company in the field of coffee.

Colors and Content Can Make a Difference

I am opting to attend an air show sometime in the future. The first thing can comes in mind is what to wear to the air show. As there are many teams performing, the more vivid their representation gets. In other words, I would get a shirt that has colors aligning with my favorite team and the content (e.g.) that has very strong affiliation with said team. This in turn brings about satisfaction as I get my attire.

Attribute-based Evaluations

Prominence in Marketing Ads

There has always been a number of commercials that based their message on comparing their own product brand against other similar product brands. The comparisons most companies choose to showcase are on features, benefits, price, and more. One commercial recently came out comparing their product with another prominent product in the market. Lysol Wipes created a commercial based in a school where germs live and prosper, and compared their product to Clorox’s similar product, Clorox wipes.

See the Lysol Wipes Commercial

Lysol pitted the two products against one another to see which killed the most commonly found germs out there. In their comparison, Lysol Wipes wins overall, in killing more germs. The marketing ad  is based on showcasing their product in the same way we evaluate those in the market, based on their attributes, if not by how we feel. In terms of cleaning products, consumers search for those that clean the best, and the most, in a reasonable time. When consumers view the products attributes, the decision becomes clear as the product is researched and looked at. Lysol Wipes takes care of the research and comparison often done before purchasing a product, by placing the benefits in the commercial to attract more customers.

T-Mobile #BallbusterChallenge


If you’ve turned on a TV, radio or seen pretty much any advertising in the universe in the last couple weeks, you can’t have missed Verizon’s “balls” ad in which Big Red tries to explains its network using an outdated test it which finds Verizon’s network to be the only one worth considering. The ad is missing details and facts, including the “fine print” that the Verizon test is up to 12 months old and completely ignores that T-Mobile’s LTE network have literally more than DOUBLED in the last year. It also calls out that the independent tests, which turns out to be partially paid by Verizon excluded Voice over LTE technology that handles 40% of T-Mobile’s calls and even ignored T-Mobile’s Extended Range LTE, the Un-carrier’s newest coverage, which goes 2x farther from towers and works 4x better in buildings—among other things. In addition, the Un-carrier is inviting consumers and media to give T-Mobile’s full network a try … because T-Mobile’s LTE network is not just the nation’s fastest, it’s also the nation’s fastest growing. I think this advertising failure has helped the attribute-based evaluations consumers make when choosing cellphone companies.




Types of Shopping Activities

Acquisitional shopping– Activities oriented toward a specific, intended purchase or purchases.
Epistemic shopping– Activities oriented toward acquiring knowledge about products.
Experiential shopping– Recreational oriented activities designed to provide interest, excitement, relaxation, fun, social interaction, or some other desired feeling.
Impulsive shopping– Spontaneous activities characterized by a diminished regard for consequences, heightened emotional involvement, and a desire for immediate self-fulfillment.

There are four different types of shopping. Different people view shopping in different ways. It could be due to their personality, and what type of shopping they are doing. People can shop for actual items, for experiences, for themselves, for others, etc. There are many different ways to go about shopping. Some experiences for some people can result in a fun, leisurely activity. On the other hand, it may be more of a chore/task for some, and it may actually be more stressful. In this blog, the different types of shopping will be defined in detail, and with that you can probably determine which of the four types of shopping you may be taking part of in a given moment. These types of shopping can influence a shopper’s decision making and value.

Acquisitional Shopping

When a consumer base their buying activities on a specific intention or purpose, he or she is experiencing Acquisitonal shopping. Purchase in this type of shopping activity mainly emphasize utilitarian value of the product. Sometimes this kind of shopping can be not very enjoyable because the consumer may think it is more as a task, e.g. buying printer ink, filling up the gas.

Holiday Shopping

Most people participate in Acquisitional Shopping during the holidays. It is because many people have to buy presents for their families / loved ones. Gifts are selected specifically for a person , and also for a specific occasion (for example: Christmas / Valentine’s Day). And it can be a trouble to many people trying to look for the perfect gift, and to get through the intense shopping crowd during the holiday season. Therefore, there are website such as (and also numbers of different shopping guides on the media) to help customers save time and effort.

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Epistemic Shopping

The purpose of epistemic shopping is for the buyer to incorporate new knowledge about a shop and its products. Upon purchase, the consumer stops the process of acquiring knowledge about a store or product simply because something within that place has already been acquired. This type can bring about either utilitarian or hedonic value

Online Reconnaissance

Online shopping has made it easy for everyone to find out about certain products and places. From Amazon to Yelp, websites with testimonials, detailed or short, can be viewed as to whether a product or service can potentially entice a consumer. Before buying a movie or going to a restaurant in a different city, one can look up the ratings of the many products online. Typically, these ratings are scaled 1 to 5 (as in the case of the aforementioned websites).  Upon purchase of a good or service, it is time to kick back and enjoy the view or taste.

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Experiential Shopping

Buying The Experience 

Consumers often have to buy something in order to participate in a certain activity. The idea of is the experience worth the price is often debated, once an activity is desired and pursued. However, the question truly is, “Is it worth it?” and to most it is. Theme parks, cruises, and spas sell the experience one would receive if you purchase and chose to go there. One example of this is found in marketing ads and videos geared to hotels and resorts, Disney Aulani.

Disney Aulani commercial

Disney Aulani mainly markets to family, and focuses on bringing families together. In this case, consumers are outshopping. The must buy the travel to Hawaii, to partake in the activities that can be included. They are able to explore beaches and waterfalls, enjoy spas and museums, and understand and experience the Hawaiian culture. By providing activities for their target market of families, Disney Aulani becomes the ultimate destination for family travel vacations.

(source: Disney)


Impulsive Shopping


Urgency as a purchase motivator

One way a consumer conducts an impulse purchase is through seeing a brand new item for the first time. They haven’t seen or heard of the product before, which means they don’t have any prior knowledge about it. When there’s urgency added to the offer, a sale is more likely to happen on a new item than without. This is generally how QVC and other home shopping networks work. They tell you they have “just 1000 left” while they’re telling you about the product. You either listen and purchase when QVC has said exactly what you want to hear (lose weight, look younger, etc.), or you lose out. There’s usually just a few minutes to make a decision, so there’s little time to spend researching and looking up reviews.

The same goes for buying a house. You see a house you love, and suddenly your real estate agent says another buyer popped up to sweep it out from under you. At the last minute, you’ve decided where you’ll live for the next ten to fifty years of your life and are getting pre-approved at 10pm by a mortgage broker, just so you can put in an offer before the other guy. Without urgency, a shopper will have a strong, fleeting desire to make a purchase, but could close the deal later.

Social Media and Consumer Behavior

Social Media is defined as web based media through which communication occurs.

Social networks are consumers connecting with one another based on common interests, associations, or goals.

Social networking websites are websites that facilitates online social networking.

Mobile applications(most commonly known a Apps) refers to specific types of software that run on various devices like smartphones, tablets, and other computer-based tools.

socialmedia[Image source:The Odyssey Online]

In today’s world, social media has given plenty of opportunities to consumers in adapting different aspects in life. Facebook, Twitter and Instagram have played significant roles in expanding consumers’ online purchases. This blog aims to understand which consumers are mostly influenced by online purchasing, reasons that tempt consumer to purchase online, types of products that are mostly purchased using Social Media and types of Social Media that are mostly used by consumers. Consumers today are progressively utilizing technology and particularly Social Media as an effective tool in their online shopping process. This process can be defined as an electronic process that allows consumers to deal with business people and meet their purchases’ needs. Social Media have played important role in spreading this phenomenon faster. Interacting with consumers on Social Media may result in increasing potential consumers and the probability of turning potential consumers into loyal consumers.

Social Media

Social Media plays a huge factor in consumer behavior. It influences viewers on how to behave and what to buy. They give opinions, reviews, and shapes the consumers view and behavior in a certain way. Those who use social media develop a form of social power over others, which differs based on who you look to and listen. For example, on YouTube, some popular YouTube stars post videos that are solely based on reviewing products they have tried, and give their honest opinion, where some are  professionals in the industry the comment on.

YouTube Made Me Do It/Buy It

A couple years ago, a craze around  a tag went through YouTube called “YouTube Made Me Do It/Buy It,.” Particularly, a majority of YouTube makeup artists were asked by their viewers to do the tag, and compile all the products that other YouTube artists, or the viewers, themselves, have suggested for them to buy. In the video, they would talk about who influenced them, and why they felt the urge to buy a certain product. Each of the videos would showcase their influences and the power social media has over their buyer behavior. YouTube has become a common place of receiving input on trends and deals. It plays a huge factor to the consumers’ susceptibility to interpersonal influence.

Social Networks(Ads in Facebook)

Advertising on Facebook has revolutionized the way buyers purchase what they want, need, and can. In order for this to happen, the process has to start somewhere. Advertisers have the option to modify their preferences through an option box. They can select the many different places in which they want to advertise, basic demographic information (e.g. gender, age, etc.), and advanced information (e.g. workplace, education). Preferences have direct relationship with prospective target population: the less the preferences, the bigger the population, and vice versa for these two factors.

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A decade has passed since the idea of advertising on Facebook was brought to life. Throughout this phase of evolution, users have started to drift away from beholding advertisements in their home computers and towards mobile advertising. But, this is not to say that desktop advertising has lost its touch. In fact, home computer advertising is still essential for some elements, namely news feeds, which are dominant on desktop despite the addition of user preferences.


Social Networking websites (LinkedIn & DeviantArt)

Comparing to social media, social networks is a more two-way communication based service. It requires engagement from both sides of the sharer and the viewer. Social Networking does not only impacted the way we communicate in friends making and relationships, it also helps in job-seeking and career networking. LinkedIn is one of the most popular business-orientated social networking service web. It has more than 400 million acquired users in more than 200 countries.

Even though LinkedIn may not be the most common way in hiring, it builds a platform between employers and employees accessible to each other. It is also a very good start to build your online resume and portfolio. On the other side, one can also get know about their potential employees/ employers a little better.

DeviantArt is another example of a social community site with a shared interest. It is a social networking website for artists and illustrators to share their work and connect with each others. With the rising of other website like Facebook, the sites is less influential now as the users may share their work on their personal site. But the site still have a large number of active users and they sometimes manage to hold events like art shows and portfolio tours.

Mobile Applications

Out of personal experience, I’ve come to realize that my overall favorite mobile application is a banking app. I bank with Union Bank, so I have their application. These applications make things much more easy and accessible. I love being able to view my accounts easily through the app, and also being able to transfer money from one account to the other without actually having to make a visit to the bank. They even have this weird thing now where you can take a picture of your check through the app, and it will process through your money into your account that way. To me, that’s super weird, yet super convenient. Now the only thing I really have to go to the bank for is to deposit or withdraw actual cash. In a way maybe this app can make people more lazy lol..but really, when used the right way they are helpful. People who like to manage their money have an easy way to access their accounts and make sure they aren’t over spending. Also, the easier access promotes in more safety. You can view your accounts whenever to make sure you’re not a victim of fraud.